Financial inclusion is the key of success for the development in a country. According to World Bank (2008), financial inclusion is an absence of price or non-price barriers in the use of financial services. Therefore, accessibility to the financial sector is a key point to create an inclusive financial system.
In order to promote an inclusive financial system, in 2016, the Government of Indonesia issued Presidential Regulation No. 82/2016 on National Strategy for Inclusive Finance (Strategi Nasional Keuangan Inklusif/SNKI). The aim of SNKI is creating broaden access to formal financial system for all people, especially those who are categorized as economically vulnerable people. One of the main targets in SNKI is People with Disabilities (PwD). According to Law No. 8/2016 on People with Disabilities, PwD are anyone with longstanding physical, intellectual, mental, and/or sensory limitations who in interacting with the environment may experience barriers and difficulties to participate fully and effectively with other citizens based on the equality of rights. PwD are categorized in 4 groups, those are: 1) People with Physical Disabilities, 2) People with Sensory Disabilities, 3) People with Mental Disabilities, and 4) People with Intellectual Disabilities.
PwD are one of the groups of people who are economically vulnerable due to various limitations. Those limitations have an impact on the low level of financial inclusion of PwD. The low level of access to finance is one of the factors that hamper the improvement of the PwD’s economy.
Related to the importance of broadening financial access for PwD, in 2017, the Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS) initiated to conduct the study of financial inclusion for PwD in Indonesia. This study was supported by Financial Services Authority (Otoritas Jasa Keuangan/OJK) and KOMPAK (Australia-Indonesia Government Partnership), in collaboration with DEFINIT. The study of financial inclusion for PwD in Indonesia consisted of several activities: 1) Desk Research, 2) Baseline Survey of Awareness Level on Access to Financial Services for PwD, 3) Focus Group Discussion, and 4) Survey of Financial Inclusion for PwD in Indonesia.
In general, the result of this study showed that PwD could not access financial institutions due to constrained requirements that must be completed to become a customer of financial institutions. In addition, PwD experienced a rejection from financial institutions because PwD were considered unable to manage their finance. The limitation of information also became one of the causes of PwD for not accessing financial institutions. Disabled People Organizations (DPOs), as a forum for PwD, have not been professionally managed, so that they have not had a maximum role in advocacy and assistance related to the rights of PwD.
In the other hand, financial institutions assumed that PwD are not a potential market for them. The result of the study showed that most of financial institutions do not have special policy in providing financial services for PwD. Furthermore, majority of financial institutions do not have operational technical guidance for the provision of financial services for PwD yet. Based on this result, in 2018 DEFINIT was entrusted to conduct the development of operational technical guidance in providing financial services for PwD. This activity was initiated by OJK, BAPPENAS, and KOMPAK.
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Financial Inclusion for People with Disabilities in Indonesia